香港公司

俄羅斯航空公司

航空公司 9547 171

俄罗斯航空公司(Aeroflot)
俄羅斯航空公司(Aeroflot) MICEX:AFLT ,RTS:AFLT 、天合聯盟成員之一

俄羅斯航空公司官方網站網址:http://www.aeroflot.ru/

俄羅斯航空公司簡介

  俄羅斯民用航空總局(Aeroflot)即為俄國國家航空公司,(俄語:Аэрофло́т — Росси́йские авиали́нии,英語:RUSSIAN AIRLINES ,簡稱: 俄航 代碼: SU)該公司為俄國最大航空公司,也是世界最大的機隊,擁有81架的民航機機隊,總部設於俄國首都莫斯科。

  俄羅斯航空公司創始於1992年7月,公司創始人是俄羅斯聯邦政府,其中自己擁有51%的股份,49%由公司的員工擁有,其餘由法定實體擁有。公司的最高管理者在一年一度的董事會主管召開的股東大會中產生。

  十年努力

  隨著1991年前蘇聯的解體,眾多發展機遇也隨之而來,那時俄羅斯人關註的核心是必須將體制改革推向實效。在隨後的幾年裡國家經濟形勢一直低落,但俄羅斯國際航空公司(Aeroflot)經歷了十年的發展,已經成為體制改革成功的亮點。

  俄羅斯國際航空公司前身為"蘇聯民航",是前蘇聯早期大型非軍事航空運輸企業。在1994年3月公司的一架A310飛機墜毀,戲劇性的是公司的經營狀況也隨之跌入低谷。在後面的幾個月,也就是俄羅斯航空運輸業的安全落至最低點後,政府著手將該公司改製成為國家控股的航空公司--俄羅斯國際航空公司。

  在十年後的今天,俄羅斯國際航空公司擁有更加優秀的機隊構成和強大的實力。西方先進的新型噴氣式飛機的不斷引進,使得這個前蘇聯時代的大型機隊正逐步壯大,同時公司的經營也在向商業化方向邁進。特別值得註意的是,俄羅斯國際航空公司在最近還被邀請加入世界上第二大航空聯盟--天合聯盟(SkyTeam)。

  改革艱辛 步步為營

  以上這些成就在很大程度上都要歸功於俄羅斯國際航空公司總經理歐庫羅夫(Valeri Okulov)。歐庫羅夫1997年上任,在加入公司董事會之前,他曾在俄羅斯國際航空公司訓練中心工作,參加過飛行標準的制定和改進工作,並擁有豐富的飛行經驗。

  事實上,在進行機構調整初期,公司還存在一定的"官僚主義",當時所推行的現代商業化改革進程稍顯操之過急。歐庫羅夫在剛剛接管公司時的想法是立即進行全面的調整,但很快就意識到犯了戰略上的錯誤,正確的方式應該是分步進行、穩步推進,變革是需要一定時間的,特別是對那些已經固化成形的方面。

  詳細分析 制定對策

  在對公司管理層進行調整方面,歐庫羅夫聘請了亞歷山大·祖拉博夫為財務總監(CFO)。當時祖拉博夫剛辭去其俄羅斯"梅納蒂普銀行(Menatep Bank)"行長兼CEO的職位,準備開創自己的銀行,但他看重了在俄航工作的挑戰性,因此出售了自己的公司,加盟俄羅斯國際航空公司,並擔任第一副總經理一職。

  在祖拉博夫剛加盟俄航時,公司經濟狀況正處於危急關頭,資金大量流失。公司運營的約150條航線中將近三分之二處於虧損甚至停飛狀態。在歐庫羅夫的支持下,祖拉博夫請麥肯錫管理咨詢公司對公司狀況進行了詳細的研究並提出改革建議。

  在過去的4年裡,麥肯錫公司為俄航提供了非常有益的幫助,使公司未來的發展更具有戰略性眼光,併為公司提供了不少運營建議,幫助公司網羅合適的具有豐富航空行業經驗的專業人員。2000年早期,俄航公司的管理人員草擬了一份發展計劃,併在4月份得到了董事會認可,新計劃包括三個要點:

  • 調整航線網路  調整後的航線網路將放棄60條航線,新增加少量其他航線,並將西方製造的飛機的日使用率從9小時增加到11小時。
  • 優化機隊構成 俄航當時運營的機型種類繁多,僅A310就有3個不相同的型別,需要重新優化調整以降低成本。
  • 改進服務質量  俄航很快發現其所提供的服務的性價比很低,麥肯錫管理咨詢公司提議,或者選擇走低成本路線--儘管公司提供了機上的低費用服務,但是將不會選擇這條路線;或者提供全面的服務。飛機頭等艙和公務艙的載運率很低,平均只有30%,而當時通常的觀點是儘量使後艙的載運率達到要求即可。

  分析航線需求

  在"9.11"事件過後,公司很快認識到航空運輸業受到了長期的影響,但俄羅斯的運輸業務沒有受到像其他地區那麼嚴重的影響,這對俄航是一個降低經營成本的機會。從目前公司對飛機的需求出發,俄航對機隊的載運率和航線結構進行了檢查,集中挑選有盈利的航線和適合運營的機型。

  以收入為出發點考慮,飛往西歐的大部分航線是比較重要的,航空公司決定在飛機規模上進行擴充,支持高頻率的航線,並配備標準化設備,以吸引高端旅客。併在其中的一些航線,比如至倫敦、巴黎的航線,每周安排六種不同的機型。

Aeroflot Tupolev Tu-154M.
放大
Aeroflot Tupolev Tu-154M.

  調整機隊構成

  機隊的合理化改革早已成為公司優先考慮的問題,例如公司一旦確定在歐洲航線上使用110/150座的飛機,就會努力使之實現。作為國際著名承運商,俄航不希望像其他公司那樣僅僅租還飛機,公司還有更巨集遠的計劃

  以前俄航曾得到俄政府許可,免稅購入27架飛機,總計節省44%的資金。現在又重新獲得政府的批准使用該項許可。引進的西方機隊由下列飛機組成:2架波音777,4架波音767-300ER,10架737-400,11架A310。

  俄羅斯國際航空公司對波音和空客的新機型都比較感興趣,並同這兩家製造公司談判。共制訂了4種可行方案--737NG加遠程型767或A330-200;A320系列加遠程型767或A330-200。最終的選擇是18架中程A320系列飛機。

  俄航認為,已有的波音777機隊規模太小,不能夠達到運營的經濟性要求,而且機隊的實踐經驗還不足,僅在莫斯科到北京和德里這兩條航線達到較好的載運率。因此公司決定引入更小型的飛機,用於更高頻率的商務乘客航班。俄航認為帶有44個商務艙座位、188個經濟艙座位的767-300ER型飛機,比更大一些的A330-200更合適,已在兩年前簽訂了訂購合同。俄航否認選擇購買波音767是受到國際政治因素的影響,而是認為該型飛機的性價比高,公司機隊中已有4架767飛機,運營良好,物有所值,因此作出了增購 5架的決定。

  通過降低財政支出,緊縮運營、訓練以及降低新機型的維護成本,再加上使用機型的減少,俄羅斯國際航空公司每年可節約資金約10億美元,這個數字約占航空公司運營成本的9%,占2002年運營收入的8%。

  為獲得政府批准,免稅購入西方飛機,公司也同意按照政府的要求使用俄制機型。現已經運營有6架伊爾-96-300型飛機,並且又另外訂購了6架。但目前俄羅斯飛機製造工業的能力因嚴重的資金不足,將使交付時間延遲。

  同以往俄羅斯國際航空公司只能被動地接受製造商提供的產品的情況相比,如今用俄航的話說是航空公司掌握著主動權。

  培訓工作緊隨其後

  俄羅斯國際航空公司在其大本營莫斯科的謝列梅傑沃機場(Sheremetyevo)設有一個專門的訓練培訓中心。飛行員從駕駛前蘇聯時期的飛機轉到駕駛現代西方的飛機必須經過培訓。

  首先是駕駛體制的改變,由原來蘇式飛機的五人機組,換成西方機型的兩人機組。大多數人都能順利通過培訓,但在某些情況下需要花費一定的時間。原來的領航員和隨機工程師在經過詳細的飛行員培訓後,就可以擔當副駕駛員。

  俄羅斯國際航空公司對俄羅斯本國或外國的各型飛機都使用同樣的標準。該標準是與歐洲的《聯合航空使用條例》及美國的《聯邦航空條例》等規定相匹配的。

  訓練中心將很快新增一臺CAE公司的A320模擬器,同A310模擬器以及伊留申和圖波列夫研製的設備聯合在一起使用。在去年7月份培訓中心獲得JAR-Ops認可,同法國檢驗機構一起制定JAR人員執照標準。

  此外,訓練中心還培訓了大約600名的空乘人員,並確立了雄偉的目標,趕超世界先進航空公司的服務水平。

  航站樓設施建設

  俄羅斯國際航空公司對其所在大本營的機場服務問題比較關註,謝列梅傑沃機場是公司的飛行基地,但其基礎設施建設制約了公司的發展。

  這個問題已經促使航空公司決定為自己和合作伙伴建立新型航站大樓,並計劃在2007年投入使用。在新型航站大樓工作的所有員工都將在訓練中心接受專門的乘客服務訓練,目前公司正在根據國際專家以及公司派駐各地的代表的建議設置培訓課程。

  拓展貨運市場

  俄羅斯國際航空公司決定不將商業貨運作為一個獨立項目運作,超過50%的貨物將由機腹載運。而如果貨運部門獨立,將會獲得更大的利潤。

  俄航計劃在未來的三年裡將貨運量增加25%,稍高於分析師預測的20%。公司2003年的貨運量為11萬噸,比2002年增長4.4%。

  為了支持貨運計劃,俄羅斯國際航空公司將在2005~2006年再購入兩架MD-11型貨機。如果在2006年,DC-10型飛機仍達不到歐洲的雜訊和環境排放標準,機隊中現有的DC-10F型飛機也將由MD-11型飛機代替。如果這樣,從2006年開始,俄航貨運機隊將由6架MD-11組成。

  同時公司也在考慮租用6架嶄新的圖-204型飛機,但是考慮到同租賃方談判的拖延,這些飛機最早只能在2007年交付。公司已經為其航空貨運制定了全面的發展戰略,將貨運業務確定為二級重點項目。

  建立巨集偉目標

  俄羅斯國際航空公司設立了積極的發展目標,計劃在下一個五年裡不論是載客量還是收費客公裡(RPK)都將增長一倍。在1998年俄航約虧損1.1億美元,但是在2001年則獲得了少量的盈利,並且在2002年的盈利超過了0.9億美元,公司預計將保持這樣持續發展的勢頭。加入天合聯盟,將使得俄羅斯國際航空公司在收入和運量上獲益不少,並且公司的運營標準也將得以提高。

  俄羅斯國際航空公司的運營者在俄羅斯商業標準發展方面是處於領導地位的,特別是在質量和透明度方面。雖然還有很多事情需要解決,事實證明俄航已經邁出了重大的一步,今日之俄航同十年前相比已經大不相同了。

歷史

  In 1921, shortly after the end of the Russian Civil War, the new government established the Chief Administration of the Civil Air Fleet to oversee new air transport projects. One of its first acts was to help found Deutsch-Russische Luftverkehrs (Deruluft), a joint German-Russian venture to provide air transport from Russia to the West. Domestic air service began around the same time, when the Dobrolyot society was established on 9 February 1923. It started operations on 15 July 1923 between Moscow and Nizhni Novgorod. On 25 February 1932 all civil aviation activities were consolidated under the name of Grazhdanskiy Vozdushnyy Flot (Civil Air Fleet), known simply as Aeroflot. International flights started in 1937; before that date they had been carried out by Deruluft.

  By the end of the 1930s Aeroflot had become the world's largest airline, employing more than 400,000 people and operating around 4,000 aircraft. It became the first airline in the world to operate sustained regular jet services on 15 September 1956 with the Tupolev Tu-104.

  During the Soviet era Aeroflot was synonymous with Russian civil aviation. One of the rare examples of Soviet commercial advertisement was Aeroflot's slogan, "Fly on the planes of Aeroflot!"("Летайте самолетами Аэрофлота!"). The irony was that Aeroflot had no competitors and it was virtually impossible for an average Soviet citizen to fly on a non-Aeroflot plane. The advertisement was intended to entice people into using Aeroflot instead of cheaper though much slower long-distance trains.

  In January 1971 the Aeroflot Central Administration of International Air Traffic was established within the framework of IATA, and became the industry's sole enterprise authorised to operate international flights. Abroad, the airline was known as Aeroflot Soviet Airlines. In 1976 Aeroflot carried its 100 millionth passenger. Its flights were mainly concentrated around the Soviet Union, but the airline also had an international network covering five continents: North and South America, Europe, Africa and Asia. The network included countries such as the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Spain, Cuba, Mexico, and People's Republic of China. Since the 1970s some transatlantic flights were flown using Shannon Airport in Ireland as an intermediate stop, as it was the westernmost non-NATO airport in Europe.

  Aeroflot also performed myriad other functions, it provided Aeromedical, crop-dusting, heavy lifting for the Soviet Space Agency (see Soviet Space Program), offshore oil platform support, exploration for natural resources, support for construction projects, transport of military troops and supplies (as an adjunct to the Soviet Air Force), atmospheric research, remote area patrol, but to name a few. It operated hundreds of helicopters and cargo aircraft in addition to civil airliners.It also operated the Soviet equivalent of Air Force One and other VIP transports of government and communist party officials. Aeroflot joined IATA in 1989.

  Aeroflot service to and from the United States was interrupted from September 15, 1983 until August 2, 1990 following an executive order by U.S. President Ronald Reagan revoking Aeroflot's license to operate flights into and out of the United States. (See Korean Air Flight 007 for more information). At the start of the 1990s Aeroflot reorganised again giving more autonomy to territorial divisions.

  In 1992 it was divided into more than 300 regional airlines. International routes were operated separately as Aeroflot - Russian International Airlines (ARIA). Some airline companies which were created from the old Aeroflot are now flag carriers of the newly independent countries of the CIS — e.g., Uzbekistan Airways. Smaller regional airlines which emerged out of the old Aeroflot — sometimes just one-plane operations — were sometimes referred to as Babyflots.

  In 1994 Aeroflot was registered as a joint stock company and the government sold off 49% of its stake to Aeroflot employees. During the 1990s Aeroflot was primarily focused on international flights from Moscow. However, by the end of the decade Aeroflot started an expansion in the domestic market. In 2000 the company name was changed to Aeroflot — Russian Airlines to reflect the change in the company's strategy.

現狀

  Aeroflot has been working towards redefining itself as a safe and reliable airline, hiring British consultants for rebranding at the beginning of the 2000s.[citation needed] A new livery and uniforms for flight attendants were designed and a promotional campaign launched in 2003.

  Plans were afoot to get rid of the old Soviet-era logo complete with hammer and sickle, which some people in the West treat as a reminder of the old Soviet era. However, a customer survey showed that this was the most recognizable symbol of the company, and it was decided to keep it.

目前俄航标志
放大
目前俄航標誌

  Aeroflot has also upgraded its fleet of western-built aircraft. It has a total of 24 A320/A319 jet planes for short-haul flights in Europe and 11 Boeing 767 planes for long-haul routes. The total number of planes is 93. It carried 5.9 million passengers in 2003.

  In the spring of 2004 the airline started an aggressive expansion on the domestic market aiming to gain 30% share by 2010 (as of 2006 it holds approximately 9%). The first task was to outperform one of its major rivals S7 Airlines, the leader in the Russian domestic market. On July 29, 2004 the company adopted a new corporate slogan: "Sincerely Yours. Aeroflot".

  On April 14 2006 Aeroflot became the first air carrier in the former Soviet Union to join a global alliance (SkyTeam; another option was entry into Star Alliance). The airline will also get its own terminal at Sheremetyevo International Airport known as Sheremetyevo terminal 3 which will be finished by November 2007.

  The company has announced its plan to increase cargo operations. It registered the "Aeroflot Cargo" trademark in 2004.[citation needed] There is also a plan to replace the cargo fleet of four DC-10s with six MD-11s starting in late 2007.

  The airline is owned (as of March 2007) by the Russian Government via Rosimushchestvo (51.17%), National Reserve Corporation (27%) and employees and others (19%) and has 14,900 employees.

  In 2006 Aeroflot carried 7,290,000 passengers and 145,300 tons of mail and cargo to 89 destinations in 47 countries.

  In May 2007, Aeroflot offered a bid to buy the Serbian airline Jat Airways from the Serbian government. The government has been searching for many years for ways to privatize the Serbian airline, and to this date Aeroflot's bid for Jat is the largest one yet. Aeroflot says that they would plan to invest up to $450 million USD on Jat, over half of the money would be going to purchasing newer short-haul aircraft for the aging fleet. Air India is the only airline that is also in the race for bidding to purchase Jat.

  Accordingly, in the past couple of years, Aeroflot has seen a significant financial improvement, both seen in its earning and number of passengers carried. The net profit of the company reached $309.4 million (RUB 7.98 billion) in 2006, a 32.3% increase from 2005 earnings of only $2.34 billion (RUB6.03 billion). The revenue for the same 2005-2006 period rose by 13.5% to reach $2.77 billion with a 8.7% gain in passenger numbers.