香港公司

俄羅斯諾里爾斯克鎳公司


俄罗斯诺里尔斯克镍公司(Norilsk Nickel)
俄羅斯諾里爾斯克鎳公司(Norilsk Nickel) 全球最大的鎳和鈀金屬生產商

俄羅斯諾里爾斯克鎳公司官方網站網址:http://www.nornik.ru/

俄羅斯諾里爾斯克鎳公司簡介

  諾里爾斯克鎳公司 (英語:Norilsk Nickel,俄羅斯: ГМК «Норильский Никель»,RTS:GMKN MICEX:GMKN)。

  諾里爾斯克鎳公司擁有豐富的原材料資源,是俄羅斯最大的,同時也是世界最大的有色金屬和貴金屬生產商之一(其中由諾里爾斯克鎳公司生產的鈀占全球產量的66%) 也是全球大型的銅生產商之一。諾里爾斯克鎳公司主要從事勘測、勘探,採礦、礦石的濃縮和冶金。

  MMC Norilsk Nickel is a nickel and palladium mining and smelting operator in the Norilsk–Talnakh area, in northern Russia. Norilsk is headquartered in Moscow and is also active in gold, platinum, copper and cobalt. The company is the world's leading producer of nickel and palladium and is Russia's leading gold producer. It is ranked among the top four world platinum producers, in association with subsidiary Stillwater Mining Company of Billings, Montana Denver, Colorado. It is ranked among the top ten copper producers.

  The company is listed on NASDAQ and the RTS Stock Exchange. According to the company's English-language website its activity accounts for up to 1.5% of Russia's current gross domestic product. MMC stands for "Mining and Metallurgical Company".

False-color satellite image of Norilsk and the surrounding area
放大
False-color satellite image of Norilsk and the surrounding area

公司歷史

  Mining began in the Norilsk area in the 1920s. The government of the USSR created the "Norilsk Combine" in 1935 and passed control to the NKVD at that time. Mining and metal production continued first with Gulag forced labour, later with much volunteer labour, owing to the comparatively good wages offered. In 1993 after the fall of the Soviet Union a joint-stock company was created: RAO Norilsk Nickel. Two years afterwards control over the deeply indebted company, that was bleeding cash at a rate of about two million dollars a day amid falling nickel prices, was given to a private company called Interros. By the time the privatization was completed in 1997, the company became profitable and the workers were paid. Nowadays average pay is over a thousand dollars per month and workers enjoy two to three months of vacations; nevetheless, working and living conditions in Norilsk remain harsh.

  Starting in 2002, MMC Norilsk Nickel began purchasing gold mining assets, which were spun off in 2005 as Polyus Gold, now a sister company. In 2003, the company took control of Stillwater Mining Company, the only US producer of palladium. Stillwater operates a platinum group metals (PGM) facility in Stillwater, Montana in the USA.

公司業務

  The nickel deposits of Norilsk-Talnakh are without doubt the largest nickel-copper-palladium deposits in the world. The deposit was formed 250 million years ago during the eruption of the Siberian Traps igneous province (STIP). The STIP erupted over one million cubic kilometres of lava, a large portion of it through a series of flat-lying lava conduits lying below Norilsk and the Talnakh Mountains. The Siberian Traps are considered to be responsible for the mass extinction event at the end of the Permian.

  The ore was formed when the erupting magma became saturated in sulphur, forming globules of pentlandite, chalcopyrite, and other sulphides. These sulphides were then "washed" by the continuing torrent of erupting magma, and upgraded their tenor with nickel, copper, platinum, and palladium. The current resource known for these mineralised intrusion exceeds 1.8 billion tons.

  The ore is mined underground via several shafts, and a decline. The ore deposits are currently being extracted at >1,200 m below ground. The ore deposits are drilled from the surface.

  The deposits are being explored using electromagnetic field geophysics, with detection loops on the earth's surface with dimensions of over 1,000 m on a side. They are conclusively able to image the conduction nickel ore at depths in excess of 1,800 m.