羅伯特·韋恩·克洛爾（Robert Wayne Clower）——非瓦爾拉斯均衡理論的創始人、貨幣先行模型的提出者。
羅伯特·韋恩·克洛爾（Robert Wayne Clower，1926— ) 美國華盛頓州普爾曼人。曾獲牛津大學博士學位。先後在華盛頓州立大學、美國西北大學、加利福尼亞大學洛杉磯分校、南卡羅來納大學任教。1973至1980年任《經濟問題》常務編輯，後來任經濟學刊物《美國經濟評論》主編。
Robert Wayne Clower
Born in Pullman, Washington, he graduated from Oxford University
. His early work at Northwestern University put him in contact with Axel Leijonhufvud, a student at the time (but apparently, Clower was not his mentor). He was later to teach at UCLA (again, with Leijonhufvud) before settling down in South Carolina. Clower's early work on stocks and flows indicated that something was indeed amiss in the orthodox "Neoclassical-Keynesian Synthesis". In 1965, he produced his famous article "The Keynesian Counterrevolution" which underlined the inconsistent manner in which Neoclassical economics and Keynesian theory had been synthesised. He highlighted the absence of a microeconomically-founded Keynesian theory. Among the several resolutions he proposed was a reconstruction of microeconomics to account for the constraints imposed by effective demand
- the "Dual Decision Hypothesis". The famous "Clower Constraint" (or "Cash-In-Advance Constraint") was introduced by Clower in 1967 as an expression of the effective demand constraint. The outcome of Clower's theory was a "disequilibrium" approach to a Walras-Keynes synthesis. The work of Axel Leijonhufvud and the early work of Robert Barro employed Clower's approach. The European "Non-Walrasian" school of macroeconomics also formalized and extended several of Clower's propositions.
Major works of Robert Wayne Clower
- "An Investigation into the Dynamics of Investment", 1954, AER.
- Introduction to Mathematical Economics, with D.W. Bushaw, 1957.
- "On the Invariance of Demand for Cash and Other Assets" with M.L. Burnstein, 1960, RES.
- "The Keynesian Counterrevolution: A theoretical appraisal", 1965, in Hahn and Matthews, editors, Theory of Interest Rates.
- "A Reconsideration of the Microfoundations of Monetary Theory", 1967, Western EJ.
- "What Traditional Monetary Theory Really Wasn't?", 1969, Canadian JE.
- "Say's Principle: What it means and doesn't mean", with A. Leijonhufvud, 1973, Intermountain ER.
- "Reflections on the Keynesian Perplex", 1975, ZfN.
- "The Coordination of Economic Activities: A Keynesian Perspective", with A. Leijonhufvud, 1975, AER.
- "The Anatomy of Monetary Theory", 1977, AER.
- "The Transactions Theory of the Demand for Money: A reconsideration", with P.W. Howitt, 1978, JPE.
- "Economics as an Inductive Science", 1994, Southern EJ.
- Economic Doctrine and Method, 1995.
- "Taking Markets Seriously: Groundwork for a Post Walrasian macroeconomics", with P.W. Howitt, 1996, in Colander, editor, Beyond Microfoundations.