義大利航空(Alitalia - Linee Aeree Italiane) (IATA：AZ, ICAO：AZA, 呼號：Alitalia) 是義大利的國家航空公司，總部設於羅馬。義大利航空經營國內及國際航線，其主要基地是米蘭的Malpensa國際機場(MXP)，羅馬達文西國際機場(FCO)則是其樞紐。
Alitalia was established on 16 September 1946 as Aerolinee Italiane Internazionali, more commonly known as Alitalia, an Italian portmanteau of the words ali (wings) and Italia (Italy). It started operations on 5 May 1947, in which year it carried over 10,000 passengers. The inaugural flight was with a Fiat G-12 Alcione, piloted by Virginio Reinero between Turin and Rome. The first international flight left a year later, travelling between Milan and cities in South America. On 31 October 1957 Alitalia merged with Linee Aeree Italiane and took on the name of Alitalia Linee Aeree Italiane.
By the 1990s, Alitalia was carrying 25 million passengers annually. In 1997 it set up a regional subsidiary Alitalia Express and in 2001 it became a member of the SkyTeam Alliance. In November 2003 Alitalia announced that it would cut 2,700 jobs over the next three years to prepare the airline for a merger with Air France and KLM. In April 2004 Alitalia acquired bankrupt regional airline Gandalf Airlines to gain additional slots at several European airports, mainly in Milan (Linate) and Paris (Charles De Gaulle).
In September 2004 the airline found itself in financial difficulties, with management saying it did not have enough cash to pay worker salaries past the end of that month. It announced plans to lay off 5000 employees and to split the company into two divisions, an airline and a ground services division. It also said it was reconsidering its alliance with Air France. Talks went on with unions for pay cuts and layoffs, in an attempt to keep the company out of bankruptcy and possibly liquidation. On September 24, the company announced that it had reached an agreement with unions allowing access to a bridging loan from the Italian government.
Alitalia is owned by the Italian Ministry of the Treasury (49%), other shareholders, including employees (49%) and Air France-KLM (2%). However, because of financial troubles, the Italian government announced its willingness to lead Alitalia towards privatization by lowering its part of ownership in it. A public notification was announced on January 2007. The buyer must acquire at least 30.1% of Alitalia, must guarantee the airline's 18,000 jobs, domestic routes, and the Italian identity of the Alitalia brand, according to the tender document published on the Treasury Web site. Italy has invited bids for at least 30.1% of Alitalia's shares, to be submitted by Jan. 29, 2007. Under Italian law, a buyer of more than 30% of a company must make a public offer to buy out the other shareholders.
Alitalia employed 20,653 staff, at November 2005 and employs 18,182 staff in March 2007.
The airline's frequent flyer program is named "MilleMiglia", and is part of the Skyteam alliance program, allowing passengers to collect miles and redeem them with free tickets across the whole alliance.
Alitalia was named by the AEA as one of the worst airlines in the worldew airlines who has a worse-than-average record for lost luggage in 2006. The average over 24 airlines is 15.7 bags per 1,000 passengers.