香港公司

質量管理八大原則

質量管理 9547 171

目錄

  • 1 質量管理八大原則的概述
    • 1.1 原則1 以客戶為關註焦點
    • 1.2 原則2 領導作用
    • 1.3 原則3 全員參與
    • 1.4 原則4 過程方法
    • 1.5 原則5 管理的系統方法
    • 1.6 原則6 持續改進
    • 1.7 原則7 基於事實的決策
    • 1.8 原則8 互利的供應商關係
  • 2 質量管理八大原則的意義

質量管理八大原則的概述

原則1 以客戶為關註焦點

  Organizations depend on their customers and therefore should understand current and future customer needs, should meet customer requirements and strive to exceed customer expectations.

  組織依賴於他們的客戶,所以應該瞭解客戶現在和將來的需求,應該滿足客戶需求並努力超越客戶期望。

  關鍵好處:

  •   Increased revenue and market share obtained through flexible and fast responses to market opportunities.

  通過靈活和快速的對市場機會的反應提高了收入和市場份額。

  •   Increased effectiveness in the use of the organization's resources to enhance customer satisfaction.

  提高了組織對資源的有效利用來增強客戶滿意。

  •   Improved customer loyalty leading to repeat business.

  提高了客戶忠誠度,留住回頭客。

  應用以客戶為關註焦點通常需要:

  •   Researching and understanding customer needs and expectations.

  調查研究和理解客戶的需求和期望。

  •   Ensuring that the objectives of the organization are linked to customer needs and expectations.

  確保把組織目標和客戶需求和期望連接起來。

  •   Communicating customer needs and expectations throughout the organization.

  在組織內部全面溝通客戶需求和期望。

  •   Measuring customer satisfaction and acting on the results.

  測量客戶滿意度,並針對結果採取行動。

  •   Systematically managing customer relationships.

  系統的管理客戶關係。

  •   Ensuring a balanced approach between satisfying customers and other interested parties (such as owners, employees, suppliers, financiers, local communities and society as a whole).

  確保在滿足客戶和其他利益團體之間的平衡。利益團體 例子有組織所有者、員工、供應商、金融機構、當地社團、社會。

原則2 領導作用

  Leaders establish unity of purpose and direction of the organization. They should create and maintain the internal environment in which people can become fully involved in achieving the organization's objectives.

  領導為組織建立統一的目的和方向。領導應該創造和維持一個能讓員工充分地參與組織目標實現的內部環境。

  關鍵好處:

  •   People will understand and be motivated towards the organization's goals and objectives.

  將會讓員工理解組織目的和目標,並激勵他們向這個方面努力。

  •   Activities are evaluated, aligned and implemented in a unified way.

  將以統一的方式評估、合作和實施各項活動。

  •   Miscommunication between levels of an organization will be minimized.

  將會降低組織各層級之間的溝通誤解。

  應用領導作用原則通常需要:

  •   Considering the needs of all interested parties including customers, owners, employees, suppliers, financiers, local communities and society as a whole.

  整體考慮各利益團體的需求,包括客戶、組織所有者、員工、供應商、金融機構、當地社團、社會。

  •   Establishing a clear vision of the organization's future.

  為組織未來建立一個清晰的願景。

  •   Setting challenging goals and targets.

  設置有挑戰性的目的和目標。

  •   Creating and sustaining shared values, fairness and ethical role models at all levels of the organization.

  在組織各層級建立和維護共同的價值觀、公平正直和道德模型。

  •   Establishing trust and eliminating fear.

  建立信任,消除恐懼。

  •   Providing people with the required resources, training and freedom to act with responsibility and accountability.

  為員工提供所需資源、培訓和自主以開展相關的職責和義務。

  •   Inspiring, encouraging and recognizing people's contributions.

  激發、鼓勵和認可員工的貢獻。

原則3 全員參與

  People at all levels are the essence of an organization and their full involvement enables their abilities to be used for the organization's benefit.

  各層級的員工是組織的要素,他們的充分參與能使他們的能力為組織的利益服務。

  關鍵好處:

  •   Motivated, committed and involved people within the organization.

  在組織內激勵員工,獲得員工的承諾和參與。

  •   Innovation and creativity in furthering the organization's objectives.

  改革創新和創造以促進公司目標實現。

  •   People being accountable for their own performance.

  員工將對他們自己的績效承擔責任。

  •   People eager to participate in and contribute to continual improvement.

  員工熱心於參加持續改進過程,並積極做貢獻。

  應用全員參與原則通常需要:

  •   People understanding the importance of their contribution and role in the organization.

  員工理解他們的貢獻和任務對組織的重要性。

  •   People identifying constraints to their performance.

  員工識別影響他們績效的限制條件。

  •   People accepting ownership of problems and their responsibility for solving them.

  員工接受和承擔問題,並對解決問題負責。

  •   People evaluating their performance against their personal goals and objectives.

  員工通過對照他們的個人目的和目標,評價他們自己的績效。

  •   People actively seeking opportunities to enhance their competence, knowledge and experience.

  員工積極地尋找提高他們能力、知識和經驗和機會。

  •   People freely sharing knowledge and experience.

  員工自由地共用他們的知識和經驗。

  •   People openly discussing problems and issues.

  員工開放地討論問題。

原則4 過程方法

  A desired result is achieved more efficiently when activities and related resources are managed as a process.

  在活動和相關資源作為一個過程來管理的時候,期望的結果將更有效地達到。

  關鍵好處:

  •   Lower costs and shorter cycle times through effective use of resources.

  通過有效地使用資源,降低成本,縮短工期。

  •   Improved, consistent and predictable results.

  得到改進的、一致的和可預測的結果。

  •   Focused and prioritized improvement opportunities.

  關註改進機會,並劃分優先順序。

  應用過程方法原則通常需要:

  •   Systematically defining the activities necessary to obtain a desired result.

  系統地定義獲得期望結果所必要的活動。

  •   Establishing clear responsibility and accountability for managing key activities.

  為管理關鍵活動建立清晰的職責和義務。

  •   Analysing and measuring of the capability of key activities.

  分析和測量關鍵活動的能力。

  •   Identifying the interfaces of key activities within and between the functions of the organization.

  識別關鍵活動在組織職能部門之間的介面界面。

  •   Focusing on the factors such as resources, methods, and materials that will improve key activities of the organization.

  關註於如資源、方法和原料等能提高組織的關鍵活動的因素。

  •   Evaluating risks, consequences and impacts of activities on customers, suppliers and other interested parties.

  評估活動對於客戶、供應商和其他利益團體的風險、結果和影響。

原則5 管理的系統方法

  Identifying, understanding and managing interrelated processes as a system contributes to the organization's effectiveness and efficiency in achieving its objectives.

  對相關的過程,作為一個系統,來進行識別、理解和管理。這將有助於組織有效力地和有效率地達到它的目標。


  關鍵好處:

  •   Integration and alignment of the processes that will best achieve the desired results.

  整合各個過程將最好地得到期望的結果。

  •   Ability to focus effort on the key processes.

  關註於關鍵過程的能力。

  •   Providing confidence to interested parties as to the consistency, effectiveness and efficiency of the organization.

  為相關利益團體在組織的連續性、有效力和有效率方面提供信心。

  應用管理的系統方法原則通常需要:

  •   Structuring a system to achieve the organization's objectives in the most effective and efficient way.

  用最有效力和效率達到組織目標的方法來構建系統。

  •   Understanding the interdependencies between the processes of the system.

  瞭解系統各過程之間的依賴關係。

  •   Structured approaches that harmonize and integrate processes.

  用結構化的方法來協調和集成各過程。

  •   Providing a better understanding of the roles and responsibilities necessary for achieving common objectives and thereby reducing cross-functional barriers.

  提供對達成共同目標必要的角色和職責更好的理解,從而減少交叉職能部門之間的障礙。

  •   Understanding organizational capabilities and establishing resource constraints prior to action.

  瞭解組織能力,在行動前確定資源限制投條件。

  •   Targeting and defining how specific activities within a system should operate.

  明確和定義特定的活動如何在系統中展開。

  •   Continually improving the system through measurement and evaluation.

  通過測試和評估持續地改進系統。

原則6 持續改進

  Continual improvement of the organization's overall performance should be a permanent objective of the organization.

  持續改進組織的總體績效應該是組織的永恆的目標。

  關鍵好處:

  •   Performance advantage through improved organizational capabilities.

  通過改進組織能力獲得業績優勢。

  •   Alignment of improvement activities at all levels to an organization's strategic intent.

  在各層級合作展開改進活動為組織戰略目標服務。

  •   Flexibility to react quickly to opportunities.

  適應性以快速對機會做出反應。

  應用持續改進原則通常需要:

  •   Employing a consistent organization-wide approach to continual improvement of the organization's performance.

  在全組織使用一致的方法來持續地改進組織的業績。

  •   Providing people with training in the methods and tools of continual improvement.

  對員工進行持續改進方法和工具的培訓。

  •   Making continual improvement of products, processes and systems an objective for every individual in the organization.

  把對產品、過程和系統進行持續改進作為組織每一個員工的一個工作目標。

  •   Establishing goals to guide, and measures to track, continual improvement.

  建立目標來指導,測量來跟蹤持續改進。

  •   Recognizing and acknowledging improvements.

  認可和報償改進。

原則7 基於事實的決策

  Effective decisions are based on the analysis of data and information.

  有效的決定都是基於對數據和信息的分析的。

  關鍵好處:

  •   Informed decisions.

  基於可靠信息的決定。

  •   An increased ability to demonstrate the effectiveness of past decisions through reference to factual records.

  具有增強的能力來通過引用事實的記錄展示過去決策有效性。

  •   Increased ability to review, challenge and change opinions and decisions.

  具有增強的能力去評審、挑戰和改變意見和決定。

  應用基於事實的決策原則通常需要:

  •   Ensuring that data and information are sufficiently accurate and reliable.

  確保數據和信息足夠的正確和可靠。

  •   Making data accessible to those who need it.

  需要使用數據的人員能得到相關數據。

  •   Analysing data and information using valid methods.

  應用有效的方法分析數據和信息。

  •   Making decisions and taking action based on factual analysis, balanced with experience and intuition.

  決策和行動基於事實的分析,平衡經驗和直覺。

原則8 互利的供應商關係

  An organization and its suppliers are interdependent and a mutually beneficial relationship enhances the ability of both to create value.

  組織和它的供應商是相互依賴的。互利互助的關係增強了雙方創造價值的能力。

  關鍵好處:

  •   Increased ability to create value for both parties.

  增強雙方創造價值的能力。

  •   Flexibility and speed of joint responses to changing market or customer needs and expectations.

  聯合應對變化的市場和客戶需求期望的適應性和速度。

  •   Optimization of costs and resources.

  成本和資源的優化。

  應用互利的供應商關係原則通常需要:

  •   Establishing relationships that balance short-term gains with long-term considerations.

  基於平衡短期和長期收益,建立相互關係。

  •   Pooling of expertise and resources with partners.

  和伙伴共用和彙集技術專長和資源。

  •   Identifying and selecting key suppliers.

  識別和選擇關係供應商。

  •   Clear and open communication.

  暢通和開放地進行溝通。

  •   Sharing information and future plans.

  共用信息和未來計劃。

  •   Establishing joint development and improvement activities.

  建立共同發展和改進的活動。

  •   Inspiring, encouraging and recognizing improvements and achievements by suppliers.

  激發、鼓勵和認可供應商的改進和成就。

質量管理八大原則的意義

  八大原則是開啟IS0 9000:2000族標準的鑰匙。IS0 9000:2000族標準的每一條文都是基於原則而制定的,要理解IS0 9000:2000族標準的條文內容,首先應理解和掌握這八大原則。八大原則是一把開啟IS0 9000:2000族標準的鑰匙,不僅當領導的要掌握,任何一個需要使用IS0 9000:2000族標準的人也要掌握。否則,對新標準條文的內容可能形式上理解了,卻未必能掌握其實質內容。

  八大原則是質量管理的指導思想。組織要進行質量管理,就應該用八大原則來做指導思想,不能讓任何一個管理項目或管理要求脫離八大原則,與八大原則背離。例如:制定質量方針就應當“以顧客為關註焦點”,確定管理職責應當強調“領導作用”和“全員參與”,提出任何一項管理要求就應當運用“管理的系統方法”和“過程方法”等。

  八大原則是編寫質量手冊和程式文件的基礎。組織要編寫質量手冊和程式文件,首先要使參與編寫工作的所有人員充分認識、理解和掌握八大原則,並用八大原則作為指導思想,作為基礎要求。質量手冊和程式文件編寫得好不好,除了其他方面的要求外,是否體現了八大原則也應作為檢查的標準。不能允許任何質量管理體系文件中出現違背、否定、歪曲八大原則的條文。

  八大原則是對員工進行質量培訓的重要內容。對員工進行質量培訓,特別是進行質量意識和質量管理體系知識的培訓時,首先應深入理解八大原則。知道了這八大原則,員工才能充分認同組織質量方針,才能充分理解質量管理體系文件對自己工作或活動的規定,也才能自覺執行。

  或許未來質量管理八大原則會進一步發展為九大原則或十大原則,但無論如何,質量管理八大原則在質量管理史上,一定是一個重要的里程碑。隨著人們對它理解的深入以及它在組織中更廣泛的應用,質量管理八大原則在企業管理中必將發揮越來越重要的作用。