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David kolb

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大卫·库伯(David Kolb,1939~)
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大衛·庫伯(David Kolb,1939~)

大衛·庫伯(David Kolb,1939~) :體驗式學習大師。

大衛·庫伯簡介

  大衛·庫伯(David Kolb)出生於1939年,是美國社會心理學家、教育家,也是一位著名的體驗式學習大師。

  在1984年, 大衛·庫伯曾在他的著作《體驗學習:體驗——學習發展的源泉》(Experiential Learning: Experience as the source of learning and development)一書中提出了頗具影響的體驗學習概念。並且,他把體驗學習闡釋為一個體驗迴圈過程:具體的體驗——對體驗的反思——形成抽象的概念——行動實驗——具體的體驗,如此迴圈,形成一個貫穿的學習經歷,學習者自動地完成著反饋與調整,經歷一個學習過程,在體驗中認知。

  David A. Kolb (born 1939) is an American educational theorist whose interests and publications focus on experiential learning, the individual and social change, career development

, and executive and professional education. He is the founder and chairman of Experience Based Learning Systems, Inc. (EBLS), and a Professor of Organizational Behavior in the Weatherhead School of Management, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio.

  Kolb earned his BA from Knox College in 1961 and his MA and Ph.D. from Harvard University in 1964 and 1967 respectively, in social psychology. In the early 1970s, Kolb and Ron Fry (now both at the Weatherhead School of Management) developed "The Experiential Learning Model," composed of four elements:

  • concrete experience,
  • observation of and reflection on that experience,
  • formation of abstract concepts based upon the reflection,
  • testing the new concepts,
  • (repeat).

  These four elements are the essence of a spiral of learning that can begin with any one of the four elements, but typically begins with a concrete experience. He named his model to emphasize its links to ideas from John Dewey, Jean Piaget, Kurt Lewin, and others writers of the experiential learning paradigm. His model was developed predominantly for use with adult education, but has found widespread pedagogical implications in higher education. Dr. Kolb is renowned in educational circles for his Learning Style Inventory (LSI). His model is built upon the idea that learning preferences can be described using two continuums: active experimentation-reflective observation and abstract conceptualization-concrete experience. The result is four types of learners: converger (active experimentation-abstract conceptualization), accommodator (active experimentation-concrete experience), assimilator (reflective observation-abstract conceptualization), and diverger (reflective observation-concrete experience). The LSI is designed to determine an individual's learning preference. The Kolb Learning Style Inventory (version 3.1) is available exclusively through Hay Group Transforming Learning.

庫伯的學習圈理論

  體驗式學習理論的完整提出,當屬20世紀80年代美國人大衛·庫伯(David kolb),在總結了約翰·杜威(John.Dewey)、庫爾特·勒溫(Kurt Lewin,1890~1947)和皮亞傑經驗學習模式的基礎之上提出自己的經驗學習模式亦即經驗學習圈理論(experiential learning)。

  他認為經驗學習過程是由四個適應性學習階段構成的環形結構,包括具體經驗,反思性觀察,抽象概念化,主動實踐。具體經驗是讓學習者完全投入一種新的體驗;反思性觀察是學習者在停下的時候對已經歷的體驗加以思考;抽象概念化是學習者必須達到能理解所觀察的內容的程度並且吸收它們使之成為合乎邏輯的概念;到了主動實踐階段,學習者要驗證這些概念並將它們運用到制定策略、解決問題之中去(Sugarman,1985)。

  學習過程有兩個基本結構維度,第一個稱為領悟維度,包括兩個對立的掌握經驗的模式:一是通過直接領悟具體經驗;二是通過間接理解符號代表的經驗。第二個稱為改造維度,包括兩個對立的經驗改造模式:一是通過內在的反思;二是通過外在的行動。在學習過程中兩者缺一不可。經驗學習過程是不斷的經驗領悟和改造過程。