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Richard Nelson Jones

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理查德·R·纳尔逊(Richard.R.Nelson)
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理查德·R·納爾遜(Richard.R.Nelson)
理查德·R·納爾遜(Richard.R.Nelson)

理查德·R·納爾遜簡介

  理查德·R·納爾遜(Richard.R.Nelson)美國哥倫比亞大學教授。

  Richard R. Nelson is an economist by training. Over his career he has taught at Oberlin College, Carnegie Mellon University, Yale University, and Columbia University, where he now is George Blumenthal Professor of International and Public Affairs. He also has served as research economist and analyst at the Rand Corporation, and at the President’s Council of Economic Advisors.

  His central interests have been in long-run economic change. Much of his research has been directed toward understanding technological change, how economic institutions and public policies influence the evolution of technology, and how technological change in turn induces institutional and economic change more broadly. His work has been both empirical and theoretical. His central interests have been in long-run economic change. Much of his research has been directed toward understanding technological change, how economic institutions and public policies influence the evolution of technology, and how technological change in turn induces institutional and economic change more broadly. His work has been both empirical and theoretical.

  Along with Sidney Winter, he has pioneered in developing a formal evolutional theory of economic change. Their joint book An Evolutionary Theory of Economic Change is widely recognized as a landmark in this field. Along with Sidney Winter, he has pioneered in developing a formal evolutional theory of economic change. Their joint book An Evolutionary Theory of Economic Change is widely recognized as a landmark in this field.

  Over the course of his career, he has been particularly attracted to working with and coordinating relatively large research teams. His National Innovation Systems project involved a team of approximately twenty scholars, and his recent study on The Sources of Industrial Leadership involved the coordination of a similar-size group. Over the course of his career, he has been particularly attracted to working with and coordinating relatively large research teams. His National Innovation Systems project involved a team of approximately twenty scholars, and his recent study on The Sources of Industrial Leadership involved the coordination of a similar-size group.

  He was director of the Institute for Social and Policy Studies at Yale University, and has directed Columbia’s Public Policy Doctoral Consortium. He was director of the Institute for Social and Policy Studies at Yale University, and has directed Columbia’s Public Policy Doctoral Consortium.

理查德·R·納爾遜的理論

  1982年,理查德·R·納爾遜(Richard.R.Nelson)和悉尼·G·溫特(Sideny.G.Winter)的《經濟變遷的深化理論》問世,標志著企業進化論的基本理論框架已開始逐步完整。納爾遜和溫特認為,企業的成長是通過類似生物進化的三種核心機制,即多樣性、遺傳性和自然選擇性來完成的。組織、創新和路徑依賴(Path Dependency)等進化對企業成長的影響至深,市場環境提供企業成長的界限,這一界限與企業存活能力和增長率

有密切關係。納爾遜和溫特在企業生物相似性的基礎上,構建了一個模擬生物的企業研究模型,該模型特別強調“慣例”(知識遺傳和繼承)、 “搜尋”(企業適應和慣例變異)和“市場選擇”在企業演化過程中的作用。在企業進化論中,慣例是企業持久不變的行為特點,其深深植根於企業的一切思維和行為中,是可以遺傳和繼承的。慣例既對短期行為(如企業的某次營銷活動)的思維方式和行為特征產生影響,又對企業長期行為(如基本競爭戰略的選擇或投資風格的確立)產生根本影響。但慣例並非一成不變,企業進化論也考慮到它受環境和隨機因素的影響,否則進化也就無從談起。